Text Structure


Now that we have finished our lesson on types of nonfiction text structure, you will complete a webquest to practice this skill.



  • Sensory and descriptive details help readers visualize information. It shares the who, what, where, when, why, and how of a topic/subject.

Sequence & Order:

  • Sequence of Events: Chronological texts present events in a sequence from beginning to end.
  • How-To: How-To texts organize the information in a series of directions.

Compare & Contrast:

  • Authors use comparisons to describe ideas to readers. Similarities and differences are shared.

Cause & Effect:

  • Informational texts often describe cause and effect relationships. The text describes events and identifies reasons (causes) for why the event happened.

Problem & Solution:

The text introduces and describes a problem and presents one or more solutions.


You will need:



-Your ELA notebooks

On the following "Process" tab, you are to complete the listed activities. There are 4 parts; you MUST have the first three completed in order to move on to part 4.

You will have until the end of the period, and no additional time will be provided. (unless otherwise discussed with me.) 


I. Part 1

In your notebooks, record your answers to the following passages.

1. Creating a Dinosaur Sculpture

 Materials:  pipe cleaners, clay, non-toxic paint

 Wouldn't you like a scary dinosaur model on your desk to protect your pencils and textbooks?  You can easily make one by following these simple directions.  First, bend your to make the frame of your dinosaur.  I suggest you create a tyrannosaurus frame by using one long pipe cleaner as his neck, spine, and tail, and then bend another into a u-shape to make his feet.  Wrap the feet around the spine piece.  Next, roll out clay to wrap around the pipe cleaners.  Let the clay dry overnight.  The next day you may want to paint your dinosaur using non-toxic paint.  His eyes should be white, but feel free to color your dinosaur as you wish.  Nobody really knows how dinosaurs were colored, so don't let anyone tell you that your dinosaur can't be pink.  Lastly, put him on your desk and watch as he or she scares away bullies and pencil thieves.

2.  Vicious Predators

The Cretaceous Period was filled with dangerous predators, but two of the most feared hunters were the tyrannosaurs rex and the velociraptor.  The tyrannosaurs rex was one of the largest carnivores to ever walk the Earth.  He was 20 feet tall and weighed seven tons.  His jaws could crush down with 3,000 lbs. of force, enough to smash the bones of his prey.  The velociraptor was very small compared to rex.  Raptors only stood three feet tall and were seven feet long, weighing merely 35 pounds.  But the velociraptor was fast.  Scientists think that raptors could run 24 miles per hour and turn on a dime.  Both dinosaurs used their jaws to kill prey, but the raptor had a secret weapon: a retractable toe claw that he pulled out like a knife to slash at his prey.  Both dinosaurs had eyes on the front of their heads, which helped them track prey.  If these two dinosaurs had fought, it would be difficult to say which would win; however since raptors died over ten million years before the first tyrannosaurs was born, scientists don't believe such a fight ever occurred.

3. What Happened to the Dinosaurs?

There are many theories about why the dinosaurs vanished from the planet.  One theory that many people believe is that a gigantic meteorite smashed into the Earth.  Scientists believe that the meteorite was very big and that the impact may have produced a large dust cloud that covered the Earth for many years.  The dust cloud may have caused plants to not receive sunlight and the large plant eaters, or herbivores, may have died off, followed by the large meat eaters, or carnivores.  This theory may or may not be true, but it is one explanation as to why these giant reptiles no longer inhabit the Earth. 

4. Dino the Dinosaur

 One day Dino the Dinosaur decided to go for a walk to the watering hole.  It was a sunny day and the sky was blue and clear.  Dino was thinking about his girlfriend Dina when he saw a pack of wild lizards and animals running through the plains in a frenzy.  Dino tried to ask the critters why they were running, but they just kept running.  Dino scratched his dinosaur head and continued walking toward the watering hole.  Soon after, Dino heard a loud thumping noise like the slow beat of a drum.  The earth shook and fruit fell from the trees, but Dino was so deep in thought over his girl Dina that he didn't even notice.  The thumping grew louder and louder as Timmy the Tyrannosaurs Rex approached Dino.  Dino kept thinking about his girl Dina until the moment Timmy ate him.

5. Fossil Mishap

It's important to think critically about the information that you receive, or else you may be led astray.  For example, the brontosaurus is a type of dinosaur that never really existed.  Many people still believe in the brontosaurus today, but the "brontosaurus" is actually the body of an apatosaurus with the head of a camarasaurus.  This concocted creature was made from two mismatched fossils.  Had more people thought critically about these findings, analyzing the components that were presented, entire generations of school children may not have been misinformed; therefore, think critically about the information that people tell you, even if it's information you find on a book or in a worksheet.  Keep these problems in mind when conducting your studies.


The following link has a list of scholastic articles. Click the link below and choose three articles to read.


Your instructions:

1. Read the article

2. Write which text structure that the article is formatted in.

3. Explain WHY this text falls under this text structure category.




Write at least one paragraph with the main topic being "middle school," in one of the 5 nonfiction text structures. List which text structure that your paragraph is in, and why.


Complete the following onine games for additional practice.





This assignment is worth 25 points. You will be graded on the quality of your responses, as well as for total completion.


Thank you for completing! Please continue to review text structure on your own!