In this topic of translation we will be observing the functions, the technical methods and how it is a complicated process of translating a written work to give a good meaning to the words or texts, usually the translation should be presented as clearly as possible for this function of elaborating a translation It is based on qualified people to be able to make a good development of information.



Translation is the process of translating what is expressed in one language or set of symbols by means of another. language or set of symbols also the cultural  are an obstacle when it becomes a function of translation, but in this case the words are not changed in other cases when the words are not original to a culture if the process is done everything is translatable.

language culture  may not be  translatable  how to comply with cultural norms involved becomes one of the major problems in actual translating.

The text type can also be a determining factor in choosing translation method.


What are two methods?

Direct or Literal and Oblique

Direct or Literal

Also called direct translation which is found in everyday usage, literal translation means to render the text from one form of the first language to another.


Borrowing Technique:

 is the idea of taking the word from the source language  and maintaining it in the target language .

 Example: Margaritas, tortillas, sushi, machete, spaghetti.



When translators uses a calque, they are creating or using a neologism in the target language by adopting the structure of the source language.

Example: The German word handball is translated into Spanish as balonmano. Or the English term skyscraper is gratte-ciel in French or rascacielos in Spanish.

Football → Fútbol → Balompié

l 4 X 4 → cuatro por cuatro (4 X 4)

l Basquetball → Básquetb


Literal Technique This means a word-for-word translation, achieving a text in the target language which is as correct as it is idiomatic

¡The girl is sick → La niña está enferma 

How are you? → ¿Cómo está usted? 

Good morning →Buenos días


Method Oblique

Transposition Technique: Transposition involves moving from one grammatical category to another without altering the meaning of the text.


She likes eating hamburger – Le gusta comer hamburguesa.

I´m sure Paul will be here late. Estoy seguro que Paul tardará en llegar.

The students actively participated. Los estudiantes participaron con estusiasmo


Modulation Technique:

consists of altering a phrase from one language to another to convey the same meaning.



 Su madre le pidió no salir de la casa. Dentro era más seguro.

 Her mother asked her to stay inside the house. It was dangerous to come out.

Here and there. 


Equivalence Technique:

Similar to modulation, this allows you to preserve the meaning of an expression, name or proverb by finding a target language equivalent.


Stop splitting hairs → Deja de buscarle cinco patas al gato.


Adaptation Technique:

Also known as cultural substitution, cultural elements of the source language are replaced with an equivalent cultural element of the target language. 

Titles of books, movies, and characters often fit into this category


  Star Wars            Guerra de las Galaxias

Despicable Me → Mi villano favorito.

The Sound of Music → Sonrisas y lágrimas



To be a good translator you have to have a good reference on how to manage a wide vocabulary to have a better result of a written work to carry out a translation of the text takes time to analyze its content for this different way of being able to do a written work.

The methods that the translation offers us as well as the techniques are a great help to achieve a good result

Direct Translation Techniques:

  •  Borrowing
  • calque
  •  Literal Translation

– Oblique Translation Techniques:

  • Transposition
  •  Modulation
  • Equivalence
  • Adaptation




Evaluation criteria


The development of the topic are clear to understand



The information is very precise and easy to identify the topic



The development of the topic has an easy to see and understand example


PRESENTATION Express domain about the topic 20pts  

Provides information according to the selected topic



The Speaker expresses a good tone of voice to listeners





the translation of the words is something  very interesting and in some cases you have difficulties in having a good translation as the interrelationship between language and culture influences since for the most expert it can hinder the best sense of the message and therefore the culture the translation source language text will not change.

The importance of translation is to transfer very precise and clear meaning to words, phrases from one language to another language for these there are techniques or methods that help to have a better meaning to the phrases or words that it is necessary to apply it.


What are the main techniques of translation?


Translation techniques


Five common translate mistakes  and how  to  avoid them.


Interpreter Breaks Down How Real-Time Translation Works | WIRED


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