Two Theories Of Migration


Hello, my Demo-detectives.

I hope we are all keeping safe during this pandemic and I am glad to know that we were all able to be here today for another exciting WebQuest.

Today we will be focusing on Migration theories. Does anyone know what a migration theory is?

A migration theory focuses on the nexus between people at origin and destination. Migratory movements are often connected to prior long-standing links between sending and receiving countries, like commercial or cultural relationships.

- D.James


Today we will be focusing on two migration theories, Everette Lee's Push/Pull theory of migration and Harris-Todaro's neoclassical theory of migration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 students will work individually, using the materials and links provided by the teacher to answer the following questions in the form of a facts sheet.

  • The Main Principles of each theory.
  • The major advocates of each theory.
  • Outline the major differences of each theory.

 Instructions: Students will use the information provided below along with the links below to prepare a well-organized fact sheet for submission at the end of the WebQuest to reflect what was asked.


Lee's Theory 

Everett Lee started this comprehensive theory of migration in the year 1966,  begins with his formulations with factors, which lead to spatial mobility of the population in any area. his factors are :

  •  Factors associated with the place of origin,
  • Factors associated with the place of destination,
  • Intervening obstacles
  • Personal factors.

characteristics  of this  theory:

  • Migration is selective in nature. Due to differences in personal factors, the conditions at the places of origin and destination, and intervening obstacles are responded to differently by different individuals. The selectivity could be both positive and negative. It is positive when there is a selection of migrants of high quality, and negative when the selection is of low quality.
  • Migrants responding to positive factors at destination tend to be positively selected.
  • Migrants responding to negative factors at origin tend to be negatively selected.
  • Taking all migrants together, selection tends to be bimodal.
  • The degree of positive selection increases with the difficulty of intervening obstacles.

  • The heightened propensity to migrate at certain stages of the life cycle is important in the selection of migration.

  • The characteristics of migrants tend to be intermediate between the characteristics of populations at the places of origin and the place of destination.

Causes of Migration AP Human Geography. - ppt video online downloadPush and Pull Factors and Lee's Theory of Migration 1.1. Introduction  Migration is one of the distinguishing features of human



Harris-Todaro's Theory 


The Harris–Todaro model, named after John R. Harris and Michael Todaro, is an economic model developed in 1970 and used in development economics and welfare economics to explain some of the issues concerning rural-urban migration. The main assumption of the model is that the migration decision is based on expected income differentials between rural and urban areas rather than just wage differentials. This implies that rural-urban migration in a context of high urban unemployment can be economically rational if expected urban income exceeds expected rural income. The key hypothesis of Harris and Todaro is that migrants react mainly to economic incentives, earnings differentials, and the probability of getting a job at the destination to have an influence on the migration decision. In other words, these authors posit that rural-urban migration will occur while the urban expected wage exceeds the rural wage. From this crucial assumption, as denominated by Harris-Todaro, is deduced that the migratory dynamics lead the economic system toward an equilibrium with urban concentration and high urban unemployment.

Following are the basic characteristics of the Todaro model of rural-urban migration:


1. Migration is stimulated primarily by rational economic consideration.

2. Migration is decided on the basis of expected, rather than actual, urban-rural wage differentials.

3. Probability of obtaining an urban job is inversely related to the urban unemployment rate.

PPT - The Todaro model Hypotheses : 1-Migration is an individual rational  decision PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6616744Todaro's Model of Rural-Urban Migration 1.1 Background John R. Harris and  Michael P. Todaropresented the seminal 'Two secto







This assignment will be graded out of 100, students will be graded based on their creativity in creating the fact sheet and the accuracy of the information presented in the assignment.

How Grades Work in Canadian Universities -



You've distinguished the characteristics of the two outlined migration theories and also the advocates of each theory. As a reward please enjoy this short funny clip and have a blessed day.


Enjoy this short funny clip: