Women's right to vote

Introduction

The next three articles are about women who help led to the 19th amendment being passed and woman getting the right to vote. 

Task

Summarize the three women in the articles and analyze what they did for women's right to vote. Write at least one to three paragraphs per woman describing what they did and what came out of their contribution. 

 

Every summarization must state-

- Clearly state Which woman or event is being talked about.

-What happened that made this event important for women's voting rights.

-How this contribution would shape women's voting rights for the future. (might not be in the text and you must analyze further into the text)

Process

Article 1.1 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

1815-1902

Edited by Debra Michals, PhD | 2017

Author, lecturer, and chief philosopher of the woman’s rights and suffrage movements, Elizabeth Cady Stanton formulated the agenda for woman’s rights that guided the struggle well into the 20th century.

Born on November 12, 1815 in Johnstown, New York, Stanton was the daughter of Margaret Livingston and Daniel Cady, Johnstown's most prominent citizens. She received her formal education at the Johnstown Academy and at Emma Willard's Troy Female Seminary in New York. Her father was a noted lawyer and state assemblyman and young Elizabeth gained an informal legal education by talking with him and listening in on his conversations with colleagues and guests.

A well-educated woman, Stanton married abolitionist lecturer Henry Stanton in 1840. She, too, became active in the anti-slavery movement and worked alongside leading abolitionists of the day including Sarah and Angelina Grimke and William Lloyd Garrison, all guests at the Stanton home while they lived in Albany, New York and later Boston.

While on her honeymoon in London to attend a World’s Anti-Slavery convention, Stanton met abolitionist Lucretia Mott, who, like her, was also angry about the exclusion of women at the proceedings. Mott and Stanton, now fast friends, vowed to call a woman’s rights convention when they returned home. Eight years later, in 1848, Stanton and Mott held the first Woman’s Rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton authored, “The Declaration of Sentiments,” which expanded on the Declaration of Independence by adding the word “woman” or “women” throughout. This pivotal document called for social and legal changes to elevate women’s place in society and listed 18 grievances from the inability to control their wages and property or the difficulty in gaining custody in divorce to the lack of the right to vote. That same year, Stanton circulated petitions throughout New York to urge the New York Congress to pass the New York Married Women’s Property Act.

Although Stanton remained committed to efforts to gain property rights for married women and ending slavery, the women’s suffrage movement increasingly became her top priority. Stanton met Susan B. Anthony in 1851, and the two quickly began collaboration on speeches, articles, and books. Their intellectual and organizational partnership dominated the woman’s movement for over half a century. When Stanton was unable to travel do to the demands of raising her seven children, she would author speeches for Anthony to deliver.

In 1862, the Stantons moved to Brooklyn and later New York City. There she also became involved in Civil War efforts and joined with Anthony to advocate for the 13th Amendment, which ended slavery. An outstanding orator with a sharp mind, Stanton was able to travel more after the Civil War and she became one of the best-known women’s rights activists in the country. Her speeches addressed such topics as maternity, child rearing, divorce law, married women’s property rights, temperance, abolition, and presidential campaigns. She and Anthony opposed the 14th and 15th amendments to the US Constitution, which gave voting rights to black men but did not extend the franchise to women. Their stance led to a rift with other women’s suffragists and prompted Stanton and Anthony to found the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) in 1869. Stanton edited and wrote for NWSA’s journal The Revolution. As NWSA president, Stanton was an outspoken social and political commentator and debated the major political and legal questions of the day. The two major women’s suffrage groups reunited in 1890 as the National American Woman’s Suffrage Association.

 

Article 1.2

Susan B. Anthony

1820-1906

Edited by Nancy Hayward | 2018

Susan B. Anthony

Champion of temperance, abolition, the rights of labor, and equal pay for equal work, Susan Brownell Anthony became one of the most visible leaders of the women’s suffrage movement. Along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she traveled around the country delivering speeches in favor of women's suffrage.

Susan B. Anthony was born on February 15, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts. Her father, Daniel, was a farmer and later a cotton mill owner and manager and was raised as a Quaker. Her mother, Lucy, came from a family that fought in the American Revolution and served in the Massachusetts state government. From an early age, Anthony was inspired by the Quaker belief that everyone was equal under God. That idea guided her throughout her life. She had seven brothers and sisters, many of whom became activists for justice and emancipation of slaves. 

After many years of teaching, Anthony returned to her family who had moved to New York State. There she met William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass, who were friends of her father. Listening to them moved Susan to want to do more to help end slavery. She became an abolition activist, even though most people thought it was improper for women to give speeches in public. Anthony made many passionate speeches against slavery.

In 1848, a group of women held a convention at Seneca Falls, New York. It was the first Women’s Rights Convention in the United States and began the Suffrage movement. Her mother and sister attended the convention but Anthony did not. In 1851, Anthony met Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The two women became good friends and worked together for over 50 years fighting for women’s rights. They traveled the country and Anthony gave speeches demanding that women be given the right to vote. At times, she risked being arrested for sharing her ideas in public.

Anthony was good at strategy. Her discipline, energy, and ability to organize made her a strong and successful leader. Anthony and Stanton co-founded the American Equal Rights Association. In 1868 they became editors of the Association’s newspaper, The Revolution, which helped to spread the ideas of equality and rights for women. Anthony began to lecture to raise money for publishing the newspaper and to support the suffrage movement. She became famous throughout the county. Many people admired her, yet others hated her ideas.

When Congress passed the 14th and 15th amendments which give voting rights to African American men, Anthony and Stanton were angry and opposed the legislation because it did not include the right to vote for women. Their belief led them to split from other suffragists. They thought the amendments should also have given women the right to vote. They formed the National Woman Suffrage Association, to push for a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote.

In 1872, Anthony was arrested for voting. She was tried and fined $100 for her crime. This made many people angry and brought national attention to the suffrage movement. In 1876, she led a protest at the 1876 Centennial of our nation’s independence. She gave a speech—“Declaration of Rights”—written by Stanton and another suffragist, Matilda Joslyn Gage.

“Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less.”

Anthony spent her life working for women’s rights. In 1888, she helped to merge the two largest suffrage associations into one, the National American Women’s Suffrage Association. She led the group until 1900. She traveled around the country giving speeches, gathering thousands of signatures on petitions, and lobbying Congress every year for women. Anthony died in 1906, 14 years before women were given the right to vote with the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.

 

Article 1.3

Sojourner Truth’s “Ain’t I a Woman” Speech May Not Have Contained That Famous Phrase

When the formerly enslaved person stood up to speak at an 1851 convention, her speech had no name — but now it’s known by a rallying refrain that she may not have even uttered.

During Sojourner Truth’s famous 1851 speech at the Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio, she used the phrase “Ain’t I a Woman?” four times to emphasize the need to fight for equal rights for African American women.

Or says a transcript of the speech that was published 12 years later.

Fellow abolitionist Frances Gage published Truth’s speech in the New York Independent in 1863, but little of it lines up with the transcript published a month after the convention by Reverend Marius Robinson in Anti-Slavery Bugle in 1851.

To this day, the accuracy of both transcripts is constantly being debated, with the two versions being pitted against each other side by side by experts, including the Sojourner Truth Project.

But one thing’s for certain: Whatever her syntax that day, the words Truth spoke were powerful and will forever be remembered as one of the greatest speeches of the women’s abolitionist movement.

Born into slavery, Truth was sold a few times as a child

Truth was born Isabella Baumfree around 1797 (records of the enslaved children’s births weren’t kept), in Swartekill, New York, to an enslaved father, James, who was captured in Ghana and a mother, Elizabeth, who was the daughter of enslaved people from Guinea.

 

Owned by Colonel Hardenbergh in Esopus, New York, which was under Dutch control, Truth grew up speaking Dutch. After both the colonel and his son died, Truth was sold off along with a flock of sheep for $100. Also known as Belle, the nine-year-old was eventually sold a couple more times and came to learn English under her owner John Dumont who lived in West Park, New York.

Reportedly “inspired by her conversations with God, which she held alone in the woods,” Truth escaped to freedom in 1826 with her young daughter, Sophia. While Dumont accused her of running away, she stated boldly, “I did not run away, I walked away by daylight.”

Sojourner Truth

Sojourner Truth

Photo: Library of Congress

She changed her name to Sojourner Truth after a 'religious conversation'

By 1828, Truth had settled in New York City and became a preacher. She started speaking out about her experience as an enslaved person and advocating for abolitionism and feminism, while quickly gaining a reputation as a powerful speaker.

 

But it wasn’t until 1843 when she had a “religious conversion” and was “called in spirit” to “travel up and down the land” as a lecturer that she adopted the name Sojourner Truth. In 1844, she joined Northampton Association of Education and Industry, which also included William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass. Truth continued speaking wherever she went — and also selling her book The Narrative of Sojourner Truth — winning over audiences with her artful persuasion.

In 1850, by the time she stepped up to the podium at the first National Women’s Rights Convention in Worcester, Massachusetts she was already one of the most influential voices of the movement.

There are several accounts of what Truth said in her speech

The following year, the Women’s Rights Convention moved to Akron on May 29, 1851. “Everything seemed to go wrong with the meeting,” according to the New Republic. “A number of ministers had invaded the hall uninvited and monopolized the discussion, quoting biblical texts to the effect that women should eschew all activities except those of child-bearing, homemaking and subservience to their husbands.”

Taking place at High Street’s Old Stone Church, the gifted speaker didn’t outrightly prepare anything. But when she heard these comments, she couldn’t sit still. Truth stepped up and spoke out extemporaneously, or as the New Republic says, “Suddenly she boomed out of the hushed audience.”

And the words she said are now what’s so hotly debated by historians, even today.

The version that was printed by Robinson a month later, starts out, “May I say a few words? I want to say a few words about this matter. I am a woman’s rights.”

That final sentence is as close as it gets to the phrasing “Ain’t I a Woman,” which we know the speech as today.

 

In the second version — printed a dozen years later — “Ain’t I a Woman” is used four times, and even detailed by some historians as "Ar'n't I a woman?”

The newer version weaves the phrase throughout poetically, showing the hardships women face.

The iconic section reads: “That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man — when I could get it — and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?”

While there are similarities in essence, the disputed transcripts hardly line up, making the debate over accuracy still rage today.

Some researchers point to the fact that some of the statements in Gage’s version simply aren’t true. For instance, Truth only had five children — not 13 — an inaccuracy that immediately pokes holes in the later version.

That said, Gage herself was a poet and may have taken artistic license to embellish and emphasize the statements — or perhaps she simply meant them to be a fictionalized representation the plight of all women.

The dialect differences between the two versions also raise potential issues, with some saying the latter captures Truth’s Afro-Dutch dialect more accurately.

 

Article 2.1

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an abolitionist, human rights activist and one of the first leaders of the woman’s rights movement. She came from a privileged background and decided early in life to fight for equal rights for women. Stanton worked closely with Susan B. Anthony—she was reportedly the brains behind Anthony’s brawn—for over 50 years to win the women’s right to vote. Still, her activism was not without controversy, which kept Stanton on the fringe of the women’s suffrage movement later in life, though her efforts helped bring about the eventual passage of the 19th Amendment, which gave all citizens the right to vote.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Early Life

Elizabeth was born in Johnstown, New York, on November 12, 1815, to Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston.

Elizabeth’s father was a slave owner, prominent attorney, Congressman and judge who exposed his daughter to the study of law and other so-called male domains early in her life. This exposure ignited a fire within Elizabeth to remedy laws unjust to women.

When Elizabeth graduated from Johnstown Academy at age 16, women couldn’t enroll in college, so she proceeded to Troy Female Seminary instead. There she experienced preaching of hellfire and damnation to such a degree that she had a breakdown.

 

The experience left her with a negative view of organized religion that followed her the rest of her life.

Marriage and Motherhood

In 1839, Elizabeth stayed in Peterboro, New York, with her cousin Gerrit Smith—who later supported John Brown’s raid of an arsenal in Harper’s FerryWest Virginia—and was introduced to the abolitionist movement. While there, she met Henry Brewster Stanton, a journalist and abolitionist volunteering for the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Elizabeth married Henry in 1840, but in a break with longstanding tradition, she insisted the word “obey” be dropped from her wedding vows.

The couple honeymooned in London and attended the World Anti-Slavery delegation as representatives of the American Anti-Slavery Society; however, the convention refused to recognize Stanton or other women delegates.

Upon returning home, Henry studied law with Elizabeth’s father and became an attorney. The couple lived in Boston, Massachusetts, for a few years where Elizabeth heard the insights of prominent abolitionists. By 1848, they had three sons and moved to Seneca Falls, New York.

Declaration of Sentiments

Stanton bore six children between 1842 and 1859 and had seven children total: Harriet Stanton Blach, Daniel Cady Stanton, Robert Livingston Stanton, Theodore Stanton, Henry Brewster Stanton, Jr., Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence and Gerrit Smith Stanton. During this time, she remained active in the fight for women’s rights, though the busyness of motherhood often limited her crusading to behind-the-scenes activities.

Then, in 1848, Stanton helped organize the First Women’s Rights Convention—often called the Seneca Falls Convention—with Lucretia Mott, Jane Hunt, Mary Ann M’Clintock and Martha Coffin Wright.

 

Stanton helped write the Declaration of Sentiments, a document modeled after the Declaration of Independence that laid out what the rights of American women should be and compared the women’s rights struggle to the Founding Fathers’ fight for independence from the British.

The Declaration of Sentiments offered examples of how men oppressed women such as:

  • preventing them from owning land or earning wages
  • preventing them from voting
  • compelling them to submit to laws created without their representation
  • giving men authority in divorce and child custody proceedings and decisions
  • preventing them from gaining a college education
  • preventing them from participating in most public church affairs
  • subjecting them to a different moral code than men
  • aiming to make them dependent and submissive to men

Stanton read the Declaration of Sentiments at the convention and proposed women be given the right to vote, among other things. Sixty-eight women and 32 men signed the document—including prominent abolitionist Frederick Douglass—but many withdrew their support later when it came under public scrutiny.

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

The seeds of activism had been sown within Stanton, and she was soon asked to speak at other women’s rights conventions.

In 1851, she met feminist Quaker and social reformer Susan B. Anthony. The two women could not have been more different, yet they became fast friends and co-campaigners for the temperance movement and then for the suffrage movement and for women’s rights.

As a busy homemaker and mother, Stanton had much less time than the unmarried Anthony to travel the lecture circuit, so instead she performed research and used her stirring writing talent to craft women’s rights literature and most of Anthony’s speeches. Both women focused on women’s suffrage, but Stanton also pushed for equal rights for women overall.

Her 1854 “Address to the Legislature of New York,” helped secure reforms passed in 1860 which allowed women to gain joint custody of their children after divorce, own property and participate in business transactions.

 

 

Article 2.2

Susan B. Anthony Biography

(1820–1906)

Susan B. Anthony was a suffragist, abolitionist, author and speaker who was the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

Who Was Susan B. Anthony?

Susan B. Anthony was an American writer, lecturer and abolitionist who was a leading figure in the women's voting rights movement. Raised in a Quaker household, Anthony went on to work as a teacher. She later partnered with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and would eventually lead the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

Early Life, Family and Education

Anthony was born on February 15, 1820, in Adams, Massachusetts. The second oldest of eight children to a local cotton mill owner and his wife, only five of Anthony’s siblings lived to be adults. One child was stillborn, and another died at age two.

Anthony grew up in a Quaker family and developed a strong moral compass early on, spending much of her life working on social causes. In 1826, the Anthony family moved to Battenville, New York. Around this time, Anthony was sent to study at a Quaker school near Philadelphia.

After her father's business failed in the late 1830s, Anthony returned home to help her family make ends meet. She found work as a teacher. The Anthonys moved to a farm in the Rochester, New York area, in the mid-1840s.

 

Abolitionist Movement

In the 1840s, Anthony’s family became involved in the fight to end slavery, also known as the abolitionist movement. The Anthonys' Rochester farm served as a meeting place for such famed abolitionists as Frederick Douglass. Around this time, Anthony became the head of the girls' department at Canajoharie Academy — a post she held for two years.

Temperance Movement

Leaving the Canajoharie Academy in 1849, Anthony soon devoted more of her time to social issues. She was also involved in the temperance movement, aimed at limiting or completely stopping the production and sale of alcohol.

Anthony was inspired to fight for women's rights while campaigning against alcohol. Anthony was denied a chance to speak at a temperance convention because she was a woman, and later realized that no one would take women in politics seriously unless they had the right to vote.

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

In 1851, Anthony attended an anti-slavery conference, where she met Stanton. The pair established the Women's New York State Temperance Society in 1852. Before long, they were fighting for women's rights, forming the New York State Woman's Rights Committee. Anthony also started petitions for women to have the right to own property and to vote. She traveled extensively, campaigning on the behalf of women.

 

In 1856, Anthony began working as an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. She spent years promoting the society's cause up until the Civil War.

 

After the Civil War was over, Anthony began focusing more on women's rights. She and Stanton established the American Equal Rights Association in 1866, calling for the same rights to be granted to all regardless of race or sex. In 1868, Anthony and Stanton also created and began producing The Revolution, a weekly publication that lobbied for women's rights. The newspaper's motto was "Men their rights, and nothing more; women their rights, and nothing less."

Women's Right to Vote

In 1869, Anthony and Stanton founded the National Woman Suffrage Association. Anthony was tireless in her efforts, giving speeches around the country to convince others to support a woman's right to vote.

She even took matters into her own hands in 1872, when she voted illegally in the presidential election. Anthony was arrested for the crime, and she unsuccessfully fought the charges; she was fined $100, which she never paid.

Even in her later years, Anthony never gave up on her fight for women's suffrage. In 1905, she met with President Theodore Roosevelt in Washington, D.C., to lobby for an amendment to give women the right to vote. However, it wouldn't be until 14 years after Anthony's death — in 1920 — that the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving all adult women the right to vote, was passed.

Books

In the early 1880s, Anthony published the first volume of History of Woman Suffrage — a project that she co-edited with Stanton, Ida Husted Harper and Matilda Joslin Gage. Several more volumes would follow.

Anthony also helped Harper to record her own story, which resulted in the 1898 work The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony: A Story of the Evolution of the Status of Women.

 

2.3

Sojourner Truth’s “Ain’t I a Woman” is one of the greatest speeches in American rhetoric

By Constance Grady@constancegrady  Updated Feb 1, 2019, 4:55pm EST

 

Portrait Of Sojourner Truth

Portrait of African-American orator and civil rights activist Sojourner Truth (1797-1883), 1860s.

 Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Google is kicking off Black History Month this year by celebrating the legacy of Sojourner Truth, the subject of today’s Google Doodle. Which means that it’s time to reread one of the great works of American rhetoric: Truth’s “Ain’t I a Woman” speech.

Sojourner Truth was born into slavery at the end of the 18th century, but she escaped — carrying her infant daughter with her — in 1826. (“I did not run off, for I thought that wicked, but I walked off, believing that to be all right,” she would later say.) When the son she left behind was sold illegally, she successfully sued for his freedom as well. Naming herself “Sojourner Truth,” she converted to Methodism and began campaigning for women’s rights and the abolition of slavery.

She improvised her “Ain’t I a Woman” speech in 1851 at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention in Akron. The exact wording of the speech has been contested. In contemporary transcriptions, the famous question “ain’t I a woman?” doesn’t appear anywhere, and some historians have argued that native New Yorker Truth is unlikely to have spoken in the Southern-inflected English that tinges the most widely reproduced version of the speech.

 

But regardless of Truth’s precise wording, the message at the core of “Ain’t I a Woman” rings powerfully true 168 years later: that women can change the world, and that Truth’s blackness did not make her not a woman. That’s the kind of intersectionality that Truth was immensely skilled at navigating, despite the enormous pressure on women of color at the time to choose between the women’s movement and the abolitionist movement. Truth never chose. As she pointed out in her speech, she shouldn’t have to.

 

Here’s the speech in full:

Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that ‘twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what’s all this here talking about?

That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain’t I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain’t I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain’t I a woman?

Then they talk about this thing in the head; what’s this they call it? [member of audience whispers, “intellect”] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or negroes’ rights? If my cup won’t hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn’t you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full?

Then that little man in black there, he says women can’t have as much rights as men, ‘cause Christ wasn’t a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.

If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back , and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.

Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain’t got nothing more to say

 

Article 3.1

Elizabeth.Cady.Stanton.png

ELIZABETH CADY STANTON (1815 - 1902)

"The best protection any woman can have...is courage."

For fifty years, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was at the forefront of the fight for women’s equality and voting rights. Her Declaration of Sentiments, delivered in 1848 at the Seneca Falls Convention near her home in upstate New York, signaled the beginning of the women’s suffrage and equal rights movements in the United States. Even while raising seven children, Stanton was a tireless campaigner. A gifted orator and prolific writer, she argued for equal rights in many spheres, including parental and custody rights, property ownership, employment and income, divorce and birth control. Like many women activists of her day, she also was an outspoken supporter of the 19th century temperance movement.

The daughter of a prominent attorney, Stanton was born in 1815 and became highly educated for a woman of her era. Besides her formal education in private academies, she learned from books in her father’s library that laws disproportionately favored men over women. She eventually was drawn to the abolitionist, temperance and women’s rights movements through visits to the home of her cousin, the reformer Gerrit Smith. In 1840 she married another reformer, Henry Stanton. Fittingly, they omitted the words “promise to obey” from their marriage oath and spent their honeymoon attending the World Anti- Slavery Convention in London. There, she bonded with a fellow activist, Lucretia Mott, over the fact that women were excluded from participating as delegates at the assembly.

Eight years later, Mott visited upstate N.Y. and she and Stanton hatched the Seneca Falls Convention. Declaring that “all men and women are created equal,” Stanton also advocated for the right of women to vote and called for changes in law and society to elevate the status of women. The Declaration was signed by the convention delegates. Stanton’s husband, along with others, opposed the demand for women’s suffrage, but attendee Frederick B. Douglass eloquently voiced his support.

In 1851, Stanton met Susan B. Anthony and the two began a 50-year collaboration that shaped the women’s movement through speeches and widely circulated articles and books. Anthony’s organization and campaigning abilities proved a perfect complement to Stanton’s eloquence. In 1869, Stanton became president of the National Woman’s Suffrage Association, a position she would hold for 21 years. She died in 1902, 18 years before women were granted the right to vote.

 

 

 

Article 3.2

Susan B. Anthony

Susan B Anthony

Photograph of Susan B. Anthony by Napoleon Sarony (date unknown). Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906)

Social Reformer, Women’s Rights Activist

Born into a Quaker family, Susan Brownell Anthony’s lifelong crusade for social justice as an abolitionist, temperance campaigner, and suffragist was guided by her belief in the equality of all under God. Anthony committed herself to activism at an early age, first collecting anti-slavery petitions at the age of sixteen, and drew inspiration from abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass, whom she met at antislavery gatherings at her family’s farm near Rochester, New York. At Seneca Falls in 1851, Anthony was introduced to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, kicking off a fifty-year partnership as two of the most prominent leaders of the American women’s suffrage movement. Anthony proved to be a gifted orator and traveled the country to give passionate speeches and campaign for women’s property rights and suffrage, often in the face of fierce opposition. Anthony and Stanton cofounded the American Equal Rights Association in 1866 and later created the association’s weekly newspaper The Revolution, which bore the motto “Men, their rights and nothing more: women, their rights and nothing less.” Anthony and Stanton responded to a schism in the suffrage movement prompted by disagreement over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, granting voting rights to African-American men by forming the National Woman Suffrage Association, focused solely on securing a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote. Anthony would die 14 years before the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment. In 1872, she was arrested and fined $100 for voting, and, on the occasion of the U.S. centennial in 1876, interrupted the official ceremonies to deliver a fiery “Declaration of Rights of Women.” In 1979, the U.S. Mint issued the Susan B. Anthony dollar, the first U.S coin to depict a female citizen.

 

Article 3.3

Ain't I a Woman?
Digital History ID 4471

Author:   Sojourner Truth
Date:1851

Annotation: In 1851, Sojourner Truth attended the Ohio Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio where she delivered her famous speech Ain't I a Woman, a slogan she adopted from one of the most famous abolitionist images, that of a kneeling female slave with the caption "Am I Not a Woman and a Sister?"

Reminiscences by Frances Gage Akron Convention, Akron, Ohio, May 1851 "There were very few women in those days who dared to "speak in meeting"; and the august teachers of the people were seemingly getting the better of us, while the boys in the galleries, and the sneerers among the pews, were hugely enjoying the discomfiture, as they supposed, of the "strong-minded." Some of the tender-skinned friends were on the point of losing dignity, and the atmosphere betokened a storm. When, slowly from her seat in the corner rose Sojourner Truth, who, till now, had scarcely lifted her head. "Don't let her speak!" gasped half a dozen in my ear. She moved slowly and solemnly to the front, laid her old bonnet at her feet, and turned her great speaking eyes to me. There was a hissing sound of disapprobation above and below. I rose and announced "Sojourner Truth," and begged the audience to keep silence for a few moments."

"The tumult subsided at once, and every eye was fixed on this almost Amazon form, which stood nearly six feet high, head erect, and eyes piercing the upper air like one in a dream. At her first word there was a profound hush. She spoke in deep tones, which, though not loud, reached every ear in the house, and away through the throng at the doors and windows."

Document: Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that 'twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all this here talking about?

That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?

Then they talk about this thing in the head; what's this they call it? [member of audience whispers, "intellect"] That's it, honey. What's that got to do with women's rights or negroes' rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full?

Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.

If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back , and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.

Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain't got nothing more to say.

 

Evaluation

Answer the follow questions for your summarization response-

- Clearly state Which woman or event is being talked about.

-What happened that made this event important for women's voting rights.

-How this contribution would shape women's voting rights for the future. (might not be in the text and you must analyze further into the text)

Conclusion

Quiz- Answer the following multiple choice quiz. Choose one letter for each question. You may use your notes, but you may not go back to the articles. 

 

1. Who attended the World’s Anti-Slavery convention, Stanton met abolitionist Lucretia Mott?

A. Susan B. Anthony

B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

C. Sojourner Truth

 

2. Who was not a part of the National American Woman Suffrage Association?

A. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

B. Sojourner Truth

C. Susan B. Anthony

 

3. Who published the first volume of History of Woman Suffrage?

A. Sojourner Truth

B. Susan B. Anthony

C. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

 

4. Who made the famous speech Ain't I a Woman?

A. Susan B. Anthony

B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

C. Sojourner Truth

 

5. Which of the three women were born into slavery?

A. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

B. Sojourner Truth

C. Susan B. Anthony